Assalamu alaikum wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuhu!
In the Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful
Who Must Fast In Ramadan?
Fasting in the month of Ramadan is Fardh (compulsory) on every single Muslim who is not a lunatic (mad) or immature (not reached age of puberty).
Generally, it is compulsory for children to pray Salah at age of 10. The Hadith says: "Order your children to perform Salah when they are seven years old, and beat them (if they have neglected it) when reaching ten years old. And separate between your male and female children in bed."
So at the age of 10, when permission is given to beat them for missing Salah, children should be encouraged as much as possible to fast as well.
As long as there is no valid excuse, it is not permissible to stop fasting or miss any fasts.
What is a Qadha fast?
Making up the missed fasts of Ramadan – they have to be kept after Ramadan as soon as possible. You shouldn’t delay in keeping these missed fasts. It is a sin to delay in keeping these missed fasts without any reason.
When keeping the qadha fasts, it is not necessary to specify the date by saying, “I am keeping a qadha fast for so and so day”. The intention for Qadha and Kaffarah fasts has to be made before sehri time finishes – if you don’t, the fast will be counted as a nafl fast. There is no need to keep the qadha all at once but you can if you want.
What is a Kaffarah fast?
A Kaffarah fast is when you have to fast 60 days (2 months) in a row. If you don’t have the ability to do that then feed 60 people for 2 meals, or 1 person 2 meals for 60 days. Nowadays, people give the value of the food in money instead.
Kaffarah is not compulsory when a woman has her menstruation the same day she broke her fast, or if the person didn’t make an intention before they fasted. If a fast is missed during the 60, then they should be started all over again.
If a person did not fast in Ramadhaan, then only Qadhaa (make up) for the missed fasts is compulsory. For example, if one missed four fasts, then only four fasts will have to be kept. The person should also make Tawbah and repent.
Kaffaarah is only if one kept a fast and broke the fast without a valid excuse in Shari’ah.
Things Which Break the Fast
- If incense sticks are burning, and a person went and sat near them and inhaled the smoke. The fast will break. In the same way, the fast breaks when smoking cigarettes or cigars etc.
- While rinsing the mouth, water went down the throat and the person knew that he was fasting. His fast will break and he will have to keep qadha of it later.
- If a person vomits intentionally, his fast will break if the vomit was full mouth – meaning he can’t keep it down.
- A person ate a pebble, a piece of steel or another object which is not normally eaten. His fast will break and he will have to keep qadha.
- If he eats or drinks something that is normally consumed or is not normally consumed but is eaten for medicinal purposes, his fast will break and he will have to keep qadha and kaffarah.
- If a person has intercourse while fasting, the fast will break and he will have to do both qadha and kaffarah.
- If a person puts oil or ear drops into the ears, or nose drops into the nose, the fast will break and qadha has to be kept.
- A person bleeds in his mouth, and then swallows it. If the blood could be tasted, the fast is broken, and he will have to keep qadha. If the blood could not be tasted, the fast is not broken.
- When a person is fasting, it is makrooh (disliked) that he should brush his teeth with toothpaste. If the toothpaste is swallowed, the fast is broken, and he will have to keep qadha.
- If a person ate forgetfully while fasting, and then realised and carried on eating intentionally, his fast is broken and he will have to keep qadha.
- A person vomited unintentionally, and he thought his fast was broken so he started to eat. His fast is now broken, and he will have to keep qadha.
- If a person has Sehri too late or Iftar too early, the fast is broken, and qadha has to be kept.
Other Ramadan Rulings
- If a persons fast breaks in Ramadan, out of respect for others around him who are fasting, he should not eat or drink until Iftaar.
- If a woman is breastfeeding or is pregnant, then she can fast if she wants to. But if she feels that fasting will harm the baby, then she can miss the fasts but will have to keep qadha of them later.
- If someone misses Sehri, whether on purpose or not, they will still have to fast. Sehri is not compulsory but is Sunnah.
(Source: Behishti Zewar and askimam.com)
And Allah knows best.