Assalamu alaikum wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuhu!
In the Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful
The Prophet (saw) was in Madinah and he received the news that Abu Sufyan was returning to Makkah from Syria with a trade caravan. The value of the caravan was 50,000 dinaars. When the Prophet (saw) found out that the caravan was returning, then he thought that we should attack them. This will weaken their strength. Also, because the Muslims had moved from Makkah to Madinah, they had no wealth with them. They thought that if we attack them, then we will receive their wealth as booty, which will be beneficial for us. When the Prophet (saw) discussed this with his Sahabah (ra), it was the month of Ramadan and they had never prepared for any battle before. This is why some Sahabah (ra) showed courage and bravery whilst some did not. The Prophet (saw) had not made jihad compulsory on all the Muslims at this time. Some people went out with their riding animals to attack this caravan. When the Prophet (saw) reached a certain place, he gave the order to Hazrat Qais (ra) to count the number of the army. He gave the news that the number of the army was 313. Hearing this, the Prophet (saw) was extremely happy. The Sahabah (ra) had 70 camels with them, meaning that for every 3 men there was 1 camel to use. They used to take turns riding it. The Prophet (saw) shared his camel with 2 men: Hazrat Abu Lubabah (ra) and Hazrat Ali (ra). The army also had 2 horses.
Whilst the Prophet (saw) was making all these preparations, somebody told the leader of the disbelievers, Abu Sufyan, that the Prophet (saw) was coming to fight with them. Abu Sufyan worked with wisdom and he gave a man called Dhamdham, 20 mithqaal to go to Makkah and give the Quraysh the news that the Prophet (saw) is coming. Dhamdham made the announcement according to the custom of those times. He cut off the nose and ears of his camel and he tore his clothes from the front and back. This was the way to make the people scared. When he entered Makkah in this state, then all the people realised that there was danger somewhere. They all started to prepare for battle. More than a thousand people came out. They had 200 horses, 600 suits of armour and singing girls with them. They went out to Badr and there were so many of them that they had to stop at each place to eat and they slaughtered 10 camels at each place.
On the other side, the Prophet (saw) was thinking that they would only be attacking a trade caravan, and so they had only prepared for this much. According to the Christian calendar, it was 11 March 624. The Prophet (saw) and his companions went out towards Badr and the Prophet (saw) sent two men ahead to bring news of Abu Sufyans’ caravan. They came back and gave the news to the Prophet (saw) that an army of a thousand is coming.
At this time, the Prophet (saw) took advice from his Sahabah (ra) and Hazrat Abu Ayyub Ansari (ra) and other companions said, “O Prophet (saw) of Allah, we don’t have the strength to fight them.” Hearing this, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) stood up straight away and said, “Whatever command you give, we will follow it.” Hearing this, Hazrat Umar (ra) and other Sahabah (ra) stood up. Hazrat Abu Miqdaad (ra) also stood up with them. They said, “O Prophet (saw) of Allah, we will not do with you what Hazrat Musa’s people did with him. They said to him that you and your Lord go and fight. We are not going to fight with you.” Hazrat Abu Miqdaad (ra) said, “We will fight with you”. Hearing this, the Prophet (saw) was extremely happy. At the same time, the Prophet (saw) saw that until now no one had stood up from amongst the Ansaar. But then Hazrat Saad ibn Muadh (ra) stood up and said, “O Prophet (saw) of Allah, we will also obey you.”
The Prophet (saw) then gave the glad tidings to the Muslims that Allah has told me that we will only face one group from the two – either Abu Sufyans caravan or the thousand strong army of youngsters from Makkah.
Then the Prophet (saw) said, “I swear by Allah, I can see the places where the disbelievers will be killed.” When the Prophet (saw) saw that they were about to face the army from Makkah, and they are a thousand strong and the Muslims are only 313, he raised his hands in dua.
It is well known that at the time of the Battle of Badr, Allah sent angels to help. The strength of the angels and be seen at the time when they had to overturn the nation of Prophet Loot (as), then Allah only sent Hazrat Jibraeel (as) to carry out the punishment, and he used only one of his wings to overturn the nation. At the Battle of Badr, if Allah wanted, He could have only sent one angel to help the Muslims but He sent a thousand angels. The reason why He sent so many angels was to make the Muslims happy.
The ayah in the hadith mentions a thousand angels when in Surah Aale Imran, three thousand are mentioned, and in some narrations, five thousand are mentioned. The outcome of all these narrations is that first Allah promised a thousand angels. Then He promised three thousand angels when the Muslims found out that other people are coming out to help the caravan. After this Allah said that if you people stay steadfast and you adopt taqwa, then your Lord will help you with five thousand angels. The hadith mentions that the angels in the Battle of Badr wearing white amamahs, and in the Battle of Hunanyn, the angels who came to help were wearing red amamahs.
When the disbelievers reached the place of Badr, they set up camp in such a place where there was water. The Prophet (saw) and his companions reached a place which was the lower part of the valley. Here, the earth was not soft but it was hard. The Sahabah (ra) were on foot so they experienced more pain. At this time, Shaytaan whispered to them that you people are praying Tahajjud salah and you are not resting, so how will you be able to fight? In this state, Allah gave the Muslims a special kind of sleep. (In jihad, when sleep overtakes the people then this is a sign of victory).
Hazrat Ali (ra) says, “On the night of Badr, every one of us was sleeping except the Prophet (saw). The Prophet (saw) was about to fall asleep but he stood up laughing and gave Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) the glad tidings that Hazrat Jibraeel (as) is stood by the hill. In one narration, it says that the Prophet (saw) showed Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) that this is where so and so disbeliever will be killed.
When all the Muslims were sleeping, Allah sent down rain which made the hard earth soft and they could walk with ease. But the disbelievers, who were on a higher ground, walking became muddier for them.
Eventually, the battle started between the Muslims and the disbelievers. At the beginning, there was a single combat between some Muslims and some disbelievers and then both armies got involved. It was here that Hazrat Ali (ra), Hazrat Hamza (ra) and Hazrat Abu Ubaidah (ra) attacked Utbah, Shaibah and Waleed.
It is also mentioned that Shaytaan was fighting in the form of a human but when he saw that the angels were also taking part in the battle, then he was the first one to run away.
There are many accounts which prove that the angels were present at the battle, for example, one of the Sahabah (ra) narrates, that when we moved forward to strike them, then we heard the sound of a whip which was proof that an angel was fighting on behalf of the Muslims.
In the end, the Muslims won, and what the Prophet (saw) had said that so and so will be killed here, this is what happened.
The Prophet (saw) had a discussion with the Sahabah (ra) about the prisoners of the disbelievers. Hazrat Abu Bakr’s (ra) was of the opinion that fidya (compensation) should be taken from all of them. Hazrat Umar’s (ra) opinion was that they should all be killed and that each Muslim relative should kill his disbeliever relative. The Prophet (saw) chose Hazrat Abu Bakr’s (ra) opinion but Allah preferred Hazrat Umar’s (ra) opinion.